1933

January 30 – Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.

February 27 – The German Reichstag burns.

March 12 – First concentration camp opened at Oranienburg outside Berlin.

March 23 – Enabling Act gives Hitler dictatorial power.

April 1 – Nazi boycott of Jewish owned shops.

May 10 – Nazis burn books in Germany.

In June – Nazis open Dachau concentration camp.

July 14 – Nazi Party declared Germany’s only political party.

October 14 – Germany quits the League of Nations.

1934

June 30 – The Nazi “Night of the Long Knives.”

July 25 – Nazis murder Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss.

August 2 – German President Hindenburg dies.

August 19 – Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany.

1935

March 16 – Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles by introducing military conscription.

September 15 – German Jews stripped of rights by Nuremberg Race Laws.

1936

March 7 – German troops occupy the Rhineland.

May 9 – Mussolini’s Italian forces take Ethiopia.

July 18 – Civil war erupts in Spain.

August 1 – Olympic games begin in Berlin.

October 1 – Franco declared head of Spanish State.

1937

June 11 – Soviet leader Josef Stalin begins a purge of Red Army generals.

November 5 – Hitler reveals war plans during Hossbach Conference.

1938

March 12/13 – Germany announces ‘Anschluss’ (union) with Austria.

August 12 – German military mobilizes.

September 30 – British Prime Minister Chamberlain appeases Hitler at Munich.

October 15 – German troops occupy the Sudetenland; Czech government resigns.

November 9/10 – Kristallnacht – The Night of Broken Glass.

1939 

January 30, 1939 – Hitler threatens Jews during Reichstag speech.

March 15/16 – Nazis take Czechoslovakia.

March 28, 1939 – Spanish Civil war ends.

May 22, 1939 – Nazis sign ‘Pact of Steel’ with Italy.

August 23, 1939 – Nazis and Soviets sign Pact.

August 25, 1939 – Britain and Poland sign a Mutual Assistance Treaty.

August 31, 1939 – British fleet mobilizes; Civilian evacuations begin from London.

September 1, 1939 – Nazis invade Poland.

September 3, 1939 – Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany.

September 4, 1939 – British Royal Air Force attacks the German Navy.

September 5, 1939 – United States proclaims its neutrality; German troops cross the Vistula River in Poland.

September 10, 1939 – Canada declares war on Germany; Battle of the Atlantic begins.

September 17, 1939 – Soviets invade Poland.

September 27, 1939 – Warsaw surrenders to Nazis.

September 29, 1939 – Nazis and Soviets divide up Poland.

November 8, 1939 – Assassination attempt on Hitler fails.

November 30, 1939 – Soviets attack Finland.

December 14, 1939 – Soviet Union expelled from the League of Nations.

1940

January 8, 1940 – Rationing begins in Britain.

March 12, 1940 – Finland signs a peace treaty with Soviets.

March 16, 1940 – Germans bomb Scapa Flow naval base near Scotland.

April 9, 1940 – Nazis invade Denmark and Norway.

May 10, 1940 – Nazis invade France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands; Winston Churchill becomes British Prime Minister.

May 15, 1940 – Holland surrenders to the Nazis.

May 26, 1940 – Evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk begins.

May 28, 1940 – Belgium surrenders to the Nazis.

June 3, 1940 – Germans bomb Paris; Dunkirk evacuation ends.

June 10, 1940 – Norway surrenders to the Nazis; Italy declares war on Britain and France.

June 14, 1940 – Germans enter Paris.

June 16, 1940 – Marshal Pétain becomes French Prime Minister.

June 18, 1940 – Hitler and Mussolini meet in Munich; Soviets begin occupation of the Baltic States.

June 22, 1940 – France signs an armistice with Nazi Germany.

June 23, 1940 – Hitler tours Paris.

June 28, 1940 – Britain recognizes General Charles de Gaulle as the Free French leader.

July 1, 1940 – German U-boats attack merchant ships in the Atlantic.

July 5, 1940 – French Vichy government breaks off relations with Britain.

July 10, 1940 – Battle of Britain begins.

July 23, 1940 – Soviets take Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

August 3-19 – Italians occupy British Somaliland in East Africa.

August 13, 1940 – German bombing offensive against airfields and factories in England.

August 15, 1940 – Air battles and daylight raids over Britain.

August 17, 1940 – Hitler declares a blockade of the British Isles.

August 23/24 – First German air raids on Central London.

August 25/26 – First British air raid on Berlin.

September 3, 1940 – Hitler plans Operation Sea Lion (the invasion of Britain).

September 7, 1940 – German Blitz against Britain begins.

September 13, 1940 – Italians invade Egypt.

September 15, 1940 – Massive German air raids on London, Southampton, Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool and Manchester.

September 16, 1940 – United States military conscription bill passed.

September 27, 1940 – Tripartite (Axis) Pact signed by Germany, Italy and Japan.

October 7, 1940 – German troops enter Romania.

October 12, 1940 – Germans postpone Operation Sea Lion until Spring of 1941.

October 28, 1940 – Italy invades Greece.

November 5, 1940 – Roosevelt re-elected as U.S. president.

November 10/11 – Torpedo bomber raid cripples the Italian fleet at Taranto, Italy.

November 14/15 – Germans bomb Coventry, England.

November 20, 1940 – Hungary joins the Axis Powers.

November 22, 1940 – Greeks defeat the Italian 9th Army.

November 23, 1940 – Romania joins the Axis Powers.

December 9/10 – British begin a western desert offensive in North Africa against the Italians.

December 29/30 – Massive German air raid on London.

1940 

January 8, 1940 – Rationing begins in Britain.

March 12, 1940 – Finland signs a peace treaty with Soviets.

March 16, 1940 – Germans bomb Scapa Flow naval base near Scotland.

April 9, 1940 – Nazis invade Denmark and Norway.

May 10, 1940 – Nazis invade France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands; Winston Churchill becomes British Prime Minister.

May 15, 1940 – Holland surrenders to the Nazis.

May 26, 1940 – Evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk begins.

May 28, 1940 – Belgium surrenders to the Nazis.

June 3, 1940 – Germans bomb Paris; Dunkirk evacuation ends.

June 10, 1940 – Norway surrenders to the Nazis; Italy declares war on Britain and France.

June 14, 1940 – Germans enter Paris.

June 16, 1940 – Marshal Pétain becomes French Prime Minister.

June 18, 1940 – Hitler and Mussolini meet in Munich; Soviets begin occupation of the Baltic States.

June 22, 1940 – France signs an armistice with Nazi Germany.

June 23, 1940 – Hitler tours Paris.

June 28, 1940 – Britain recognizes General Charles de Gaulle as the Free French leader.

July 1, 1940 – German U-boats attack merchant ships in the Atlantic.

July 5, 1940 – French Vichy government breaks off relations with Britain.

July 10, 1940 – Battle of Britain begins.

July 23, 1940 – Soviets take Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

August 3-19 – Italians occupy British Somaliland in East Africa.

August 13, 1940 – German bombing offensive against airfields and factories in England.

August 15, 1940 – Air battles and daylight raids over Britain.

August 17, 1940 – Hitler declares a blockade of the British Isles.

August 23/24 – First German air raids on Central London.

August 25/26 – First British air raid on Berlin.

September 3, 1940 – Hitler plans Operation Sea Lion (the invasion of Britain).

September 7, 1940 – German Blitz against Britain begins.

September 13, 1940 – Italians invade Egypt.

September 15, 1940 – Massive German air raids on London, Southampton, Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool and Manchester.

September 16, 1940 – United States military conscription bill passed.

September 27, 1940 – Tripartite (Axis) Pact signed by Germany, Italy and Japan.

October 7, 1940 – German troops enter Romania.

October 12, 1940 – Germans postpone Operation Sea Lion until Spring of 1941.

October 28, 1940 – Italy invades Greece.

November 5, 1940 – Roosevelt re-elected as U.S. president.

November 10/11 – Torpedo bomber raid cripples the Italian fleet at Taranto, Italy.

November 14/15 – Germans bomb Coventry, England.

November 20, 1940 – Hungary joins the Axis Powers.

November 22, 1940 – Greeks defeat the Italian 9th Army.

November 23, 1940 – Romania joins the Axis Powers.

December 9/10 – British begin a western desert offensive in North Africa against the Italians.

December 29/30 – Massive German air raid on London.

1941

January 22, 1941 – Tobruk in North Africa falls to the British and Australians.

February 11, 1941 – British forces advance into Italian Somaliland in East Africa.

February 12, 1941 – German General Erwin Rommel arrives in Tripoli, North Africa.

February 14, 1941 – First units of German ‘Afrika Korps’ arrive in North Africa.

March 7, 1941 – British forces arrive in Greece.

March 11, 1941 – President Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act.

March 27, 1941 – A coup in Yugoslavia overthrows the pro-Axis government.

April 3, 1941 – Pro-Axis regime set up in Iraq.

April 6, 1941 – Nazis invade Greece and Yugoslavia.

April 14, 1941 – Rommel attacks Tobruk.

April 17, 1941 – Yugoslavia surrenders to the Nazis.

April 27, 1941 – Greece surrenders to the Nazis.

May 1, 1941 – German attack on Tobruk is repulsed.

May 10, 1941 – Deputy Führer Rudolph Hess flies to Scotland.

May 10/11 – Heavy German bombing of London; British bomb Hamburg.

May 15, 1941 – Operation Brevity begins (the British counter-attack in Egypt).

May 24, 1941 – Sinking of the British ship Hood by the Bismarck.

May 27, 1941 – Sinking of the Bismarck by the British Navy.

June 4, 1941 – Pro-Allied government installed in Iraq.

June 8, 1941 – Allies invade Syria and Lebanon.

June 14, 1941 – United States freezes German and Italian assets in America.

June 22, 1941 – Germany attacks Soviet Union as Operation Barbarossa begins.

June 28, 1941 – Germans capture Minsk.

July 3, 1941 – Stalin calls for a scorched earth policy.

July 10, 1941 – Germans cross the River Dnieper in the Ukraine.

July 12, 1941 – Mutual Assistance agreement between British and Soviets.

July 14, 1941 – British occupy Syria.

July 26, 1941 – Roosevelt freezes Japanese assets in United States and suspends relations.

July 31, 1941 – Göring instructs Heydrich to prepare for the Final Solution.

August 1, 1941 – United States announces an oil embargo against aggressor states.

August 14, 1941 – Roosevelt and Churchill announce the Atlantic Charter.

August 20, 1941 – Nazi siege of Leningrad begins.

September 1, 1941 – Nazis order Jews to wear yellow stars.

September 3, 1941 – First experimental use of gas chambers at Auschwitz.

September 19, 1941 – Nazis take Kiev.

September 29, 1941 – Nazis murder 33,771 Jews at Kiev.

October 2, 1941 – Operation Typhoon begins (German advance on Moscow).

October 16, 1941 – Germans take Odessa.

October 24, 1941 – Germans take Kharkov.

October 30, 1941 – Germans reach Sevastopol.

November 13, 1941 – British aircraft carrier Ark Royal is sunk off Gibraltar by a U-boat.

November 20, 1941 – Germans take Rostov.

November 27, 1941 – Soviet troops retake Rostov.

December 5, 1941 – German attack on Moscow is abandoned.

December 6, 1941 – Soviet Army launches a major counter-offensive around Moscow.

December 7, 1941 – Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor; Hitler issues the Night and Fog decree.

December 8, 1941 – United States and Britain declare war on Japan.

December 11, 1941 – Hitler declares war on the United States.

December 16, 1941 – Rommel begins a retreat to El Agheila in North Africa.

December 19, 1941 – Hitler takes complete control of the German Army.

1942

January 1, 1942 – Declaration of the United Nations signed by 26 Allied nations.

January 13, 1942 – Germans begin a U-boat offensive along east coast of USA.

January 20, 1942 – SS Leader Heydrich holds the Wannsee Conference to coordinate the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.”

January 21, 1942 – Rommel’s counter-offensive from El Agheila begins.

January 26, 1942 – First American forces arrive in Great Britain.

April 23, 1942 – German air raids begin against cathedral cities in Britain.

May 8, 1942 – German summer offensive begins in the Crimea.

May 26, 1942 – Rommel begins an offensive against the Gazala Line.

May 27, 1942 – SS Leader Heydrich attacked in Prague.

May 30, 1942 – First thousand-bomber British air raid (against Cologne).

June 5, 1942 – Germans besiege Sevastopol.

June 10, 1942 – Nazis liquidate Lidice in reprisal for Heydrich’s assassination.

June 21, 1942 – Rommel captures Tobruk.

June 25, 1942 – General Dwight D. Eisenhower arrives in London.

June 30, 1942 – Rommel reaches El Alamein near Cairo, Egypt.

July 1-30 – First Battle of El Alamein.

July 3, 1942 – Germans take Sevastopol.

July 5, 1942 – Soviet resistance in the Crimea ends.

July 9, 1942 – Germans begin a drive toward Stalingrad in the USSR.

July 22, 1942 – First deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto to concentration camps; Treblinka extermination camp opened.

August 7, 1942 – British General Bernard Montgomery takes command of Eighth Army in North Africa.

August 12, 1942 – Stalin and Churchill meet in Moscow.

August 17, 1942 – First all-American air attack in Europe.

August 23, 1942 – Massive German air raid on Stalingrad.

September 2, 1942 – Rommel driven back by Montgomery in the Battle of Alam Halfa.

September 13, 1942 – Battle of Stalingrad begins.

October 5, 1942 – A German eyewitness observes SS mass murder.

October 18, 1942 – Hitler orders the execution of all captured British commandos.

November 1, 1942 – Operation Supercharge (Allies break Axis lines at El Alamein).

November 8, 1942 – Operation Torch begins (U.S. invasion of North Africa).

November 11, 1942 – Germans and Italians invade unoccupied Vichy France.

November 19, 1942 – Soviet counter-offensive at Stalingrad begins.

December 2, 1942 – Professor Enrico Fermi sets up an atomic reactor in Chicago.

December 13, 1942 – Rommel withdraws from El Agheila.

December 16, 1942 – Soviets defeat Italian troops on the River Don in the USSR.

December 17, 1942 – British Foreign Secretary Eden tells the British House of Commons of mass executions of Jews by Nazis; U.S. declares those crimes will be avenged.

December 31, 1942 – Battle of the Barents Sea between German and British ships.

1943

January 2/3 – Germans begin a withdrawal from the Caucasus.

January 10, 1943 – Soviets begin an offensive against the Germans in Stalingrad.

January 14-24 – Casablanca conference between Churchill and Roosevelt. During the conference, Roosevelt announces the war can end only with “unconditional German surrender.”

January 23, 1943 – Montgomery’s Eighth Army takes Tripoli.

January 27, 1943 – First bombing raid by Americans on Germany (at Wilhelmshaven).

February 2, 1943 – Germans surrender at Stalingrad in the first big defeat of Hitler’s armies.

February 8, 1943 – Soviet troops take Kursk.

February 14-25 – Battle of Kasserine Pass between the U.S. 1st Armored Division and German Panzers in North Africa.

February 16, 1943 – Soviets re-take Kharkov.

February 18, 1943 – Nazis arrest White Rose resistance leaders in Munich.

March 2, 1943 – Germans begin a withdrawal from Tunisia, Africa.

March 15, 1943 – Germans re-capture Kharkov.

March 16-20 – Battle of Atlantic climaxes with 27 merchant ships sunk by German U-boats.

March 20-28 – Montgomery’s Eighth Army breaks through the Mareth Line in Tunisia.

April 6/7 – Axis forces in Tunisia begin a withdrawal toward Enfidaville as American and British forces link.

April 19, 1943 – Waffen-SS attacks Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto.

May 7, 1943 – Allies take Tunisia.

May 13, 1943 – German and Italian troops surrender in North Africa.

May 16, 1943 – Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto ends.

May 16/17 – British air raid on the Ruhr.

May 22, 1943 – Dönitz suspends U-boat operations in the North Atlantic.

June 10, 1943 – ‘Pointblank’ directive to improve Allied bombing strategy issued.

June 11, 1943 – Himmler orders the liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in Poland.

July 5, 1943 – Germans begin their last offensive against Kursk.

July 9/10 – Allies land in Sicily.

July 19, 1943 – Allies bomb Rome.

July 22, 1943 – Americans capture Palermo, Sicily.

July 24, 1943 – British bombing raid on Hamburg.

July 25/26 – Mussolini arrested and the Italian Fascist government falls; Marshal Pietro Badoglio takes over and negotiates with Allies.

July 27/28 – Allied air raid causes a firestorm in Hamburg.

August 12-17 – Germans evacuate Sicily.

August 17, 1943 – American daylight air raids on Regensburg and Schweinfurt in Germany; Allies reach Messina, Sicily.

August 23, 1943 – Soviet troops recapture Kharkov.

September 8, 1943 – Italian surrender to Allies is announced.

September 9, 1943 – Allied landings at Salerno and Taranto.

September 11, 1943 – Germans occupy Rome.

September 12, 1943 – Germans rescue Mussolini.

September 23, 1943 – Mussolini re-establishes a Fascist government.

October 1, 1943 – Allies enter Naples, Italy.

October 13, 1943 – Italy declares war on Germany; Second American air raid on Schweinfurt.

November 6, 1943 – Russians recapture Kiev in the Ukraine.

November 18, 1943 – Large British air raid on Berlin.

November 28, 1943 – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Teheran.

December 24-26 – Soviets launch offensives on the Ukrainian front.

1944

January 6, 1944 – Soviet troops advance into Poland.

January 17, 1944 – First attack toward Cassino, Italy.

January 22, 1944 – Allies land at Anzio in Italy.

January 27, 1944 – Leningrad relieved after a 900-day siege.

February 15-18 – Allies bomb the monastery at Monte Cassino.

February 16, 1944 – Germans counter-attack against the Anzio beachhead.

March 4, 1944 – Soviet troops begin an offensive on the Belorussian front; First major daylight bombing raid on Berlin by the Allies.

March 15, 1944 – Second Allied attempt to capture Monte Cassino begins.

March 18, 1944 – British drop 3000 tons of bombs during an air raid on Hamburg, Germany.

April 8, 1944 – Soviet troops begin an offensive to liberate Crimea.

May 9, 1944 – Soviet troops recapture Sevastopol.

May 11, 1944 – Allies attack the Gustav Line south of Rome.

May 12, 1944 – Germans surrender in the Crimea.

May 15, 1944 – Germans withdraw to the Adolf Hitler Line.

May 25, 1944 – Germans retreat from Anzio.

June 5, 1944 – Allies enter Rome.

June 6, 1944 – D-Day landings on the northern coast of France.

June 9, 1944 – Soviet offensive against the Finnish front begins.

June 10, 1944 – Nazis liquidate the town of Oradour-sur-Glane in France.

June 13, 1944 – First German V-1 rocket attack on Britain.

June 22, 1944 – Operation Bagration begins (the Soviet summer offensive).

June 27, 1944 – U.S. troops liberate Cherbourg, France.

July 3, 1944 – ‘Battle of the Hedgerows’ in Normandy; Soviets capture Minsk.

July 9, 1944 – British and Canadian troops capture Caen, France.

July 18, 1944 – U.S. troops reach St. Lô, France.

July 20, 1944 – Assassination attempt by German Army officers against Hitler fails.

July 24, 1944 – Soviet troops liberate first concentration camp at Majdanek.

July 25-30 – Operation Cobra (U.S. troops break out west of St. Lô).

July 28, 1944 – Soviet troops take Brest-Litovsk. U.S. troops take Coutances.

August 1, 1944 – Polish Home Army uprising against Nazis in Warsaw begins; U.S. troops reach Avranches.

August 4, 1944 – Anne Frank and family arrested by the Gestapo in Amsterdam, Holland.

August 7, 1944 – Germans begin a major counter-attack toward Avranches.

August 15, 1944 – Operation Dragoon begins (the Allied invasion of Southern France).

August 19, 1944 – Resistance uprising in Paris.

August 19/20 – Soviet offensive in the Balkans begins with an attack on Romania.

August 20, 1944 – Allies encircle Germans in the Falaise Pocket.

August 25, 1944 – Liberation of Paris.

August 29, 1944 – Slovak uprising begins.

August 31, 1944 – Soviet troops take Bucharest.

September 1-4 – Verdun, Dieppe, Artois, Rouen, Abbeville, Antwerp and Brussels liberated by Allies.

September 4, 1944 – Finland and the Soviet Union agree to a cease-fire.

September 13, 1944 – U.S. troops reach the Siegfried Line in western Germany.

September 17, 1944 – Operation Market Garden begins (Allied airborne assault on Holland).

September 26, 1944 – Soviet troops occupy Estonia.

October 2, 1944 – Warsaw Uprising ends as the Polish Home Army surrenders to the Germans.

October 10-29 – Soviet troops capture Riga.

October 14, 1944 – Allies liberate Athens; Rommel commits suicide.

October 21, 1944 – Massive German surrender at Aachen, Germany.

October 30, 1944 – Last use of gas chambers at Auschwitz.

November 20, 1944 – French troops drive through the ‘Beffort Gap’ to reach the Rhine.

November 24, 1944 – French capture Strasbourg.

December 4, 1944 – Civil War in Greece; Athens placed under martial law.

December 16-27 – Battle of the Bulge in the Ardennes.

December 17, 1944 – Waffen-SS murder 81 U.S. POWs at Malmedy.

December 26, 1944 – Patton relieves Bastogne.

December 27, 1944 – Soviet troops besiege Budapest.

1945 

January 1-17 – Germans withdraw from the Ardennes.

January 16, 1945 – U.S. 1st and 3rd Armies link up after a month long separation during the Battle of the Bulge.

January 17, 1945 – Soviet troops capture Warsaw, Poland.

January 26, 1945 – Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz.

February 4-11 – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Yalta.

February 13/14 – Dresden is destroyed by a firestorm after Allied bombing raids.

March 6, 1945 – Last German offensive of the war begins to defend oil fields in Hungary.

March 7, 1945 – Allies take Cologne and establish a bridge across the Rhine at Remagen.

March 30, 1945 – Soviet troops capture Danzig.

In April – Allies discover stolen Nazi art and wealth hidden in German salt mines.

April 1, 1945 – U.S. troops encircle Germans in the Ruhr; Allied offensive in northern Italy.

April 12, 1945 – Allies liberate Buchenwald and Belsen concentration camps; President Roosevelt dies. Harry Truman becomes President.

April 16, 1945 – Soviet troops begin their final attack on Berlin; Americans enter Nuremberg.

April 18, 1945 – German forces in the Ruhr surrender.

April 21, 1945 – Soviets reach Berlin.

April 28, 1945 – Mussolini is captured and hanged by Italian partisans; Allies take Venice.

April 29, 1945 – U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau.

April 30, 1945 – Adolf Hitler commits suicide.

May 2, 1945 – German troops in Italy surrender.

May 7, 1945 – Unconditional surrender of all German forces to Allies.

May 8, 1945 – V-E (Victory in Europe) Day.

May 9, 1945 – Hermann Göring is captured by members of the U.S. 7th Army.

May 23, 1945 – SS-Reichsführer Himmler commits suicide; German High Command and Provisional Government imprisoned.

June 5, 1945 – Allies divide up Germany and Berlin and take over the government.

June 26, 1945 – United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco.

July 1, 1945 – American, British, and French troops move into Berlin.

July 16, 1945 – First U.S. atomic bomb test; Potsdam Conference begins.

July 26, 1945 – Atlee succeeds Churchill as British Prime Minister.

August 6, 1945 – First atomic bomb dropped, on Hiroshima, Japan.

August 8, 1945 – Soviets declares war on Japan and invade Manchuria.

August 9, 1945 – Second atomic bomb dropped, on Nagasaki, Japan.

August 14, 1945 – Japanese agree to unconditional surrender.

September 2, 1945 – Japanese sign the surrender agreement;  V-J (Victory over Japan) Day.

October 24, 1945 – United Nations is born.

November 20, 1945 – Nuremberg war crimes trials begin.